For centuries, Jews were persecuted as a religious minority. In the modern era, anti-Semitism has emerged as a political ideology that claims Jews control the world and are to be blamed for phenomena such as capitalism and communism. Anti-Semitism, including the belief that Jews are racially inferior, was the driving force behind the Holocaust. Anti-Semitic narratives, such as blood libel, continue to be heard today. Complex contemporary challenges like the financial crisis or the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians are reduced to placing blame on Jews, drawing on such anti-Semitic stereotypes and conspiracy theories. Contemporary manifestations of anti-Semitism also revolve around the Holocaust, with some blaming the Holocaust on Jews or suggesting that Jews focus on this tragedy to gain advantage. Denying the Holocaust is one way of expressing anti-Semitism.